Vaccines are a vital part of proper equine management.  Vaccinating your horse will help protect him/her from contracting various infectious diseases. However, vaccination does not guarantee 100% protection.  It serves to minimize the risk of infection, but does not prevent disease in all circumstances.

Vaccination involves the administration of the causative organism, either in the muscle or intranasal, which is inactivated or modified to avoid causing actual disease in the horse.  Two or more doses are needed initially (first shots as a yearling)   to initiate an adequate immune response.  After this initial series, the antibodies that their body develops stand guard against invasion of specific diseases.  Over time, the antibodies gradually decline.   Therefore, a booster is needed at regular intervals to maintain adequate protection.  Some are annual and some are more frequent depending on travel schedules, etc.

The doctors at the South Shore Equine Clinic & Diagnostic Center recommend annual vaccinations against RabiesEastern and Western Equine EncephalitisWest Nile VirusTetanus, and Strangles.   In some instances where the incidence of disease is higher, our recommendations may change to semiannually.  This is the case for Eastern Equine Encephalitis and West Nile Virus this year. We recommend that the vaccine against Influenza & Rhinopneumonitis be given at least twice yearly.  We administer the vaccines over a series of two to three visits to the farm, so that too many vaccines do not challenge your horse’s immune system at the same time.

 For horses traveling to Florida, booster vaccines are required two-four weeks prior to departure.

Deworming and Gastrointestinal Parasite Control

Internal parasites (worms) can cause extensive internal damage to your horse without you even realizing that your horses are infected.  There are over 150 species of worms that can infect horses.  The most important, in terms of health risk, are large and small strongyles, ascarids, and tapeworms.

Where We Are Today And What is Best For Your Horse

New research has shown that deworming on a rotation every 6-8 weeks is not the best way to care for horses anymore.  Because of the emergence of anthelminthic resistance we are recommending a new system of fecal testing, deworming, and protecting the environment to rid horses of any existing infection; as well as preventing horses from becoming infected with parasites in the first place.

First and foremost, for optimal impact, you must give the right dewormer at the effective dosage at the appropriate time of year.  The idea of rotational deworming between different drug classes was based on the premise that some parasites will survive treatments with a particular dewormer. If you use the same drug class in successive treatments, the surviving parasites can reproduce with new generations resistant to that particular drug class. This is  the problem that some farms are experiencing and why the industry as a whole needs to make a concerted effort to deworm based on fecal egg counts and  by targeting the specific parasite(s) present.

Timing of deworming is very important. Consider the small strongyle larvae, for example. Small strongyle larvae are able to migrate and hide in the wall of the large intestine and are not affected by many of our common anthelminthics. These larvae begin to emerge as the days get longer (March-April). We often see an increase in fecal egg counts (FEC) at this time. By deworming for small strongyles at the proper time in your area of the country, we can thwart extensive egg laying that would contaminate spring pastures and perpetuate infection the rest of the year.  Many of our current dewormers kill only the adults. It is ideal to deworm with a product that will treat both the adults as well as the larvae twice annually.  It is also important to use a product that will kill tapeworms, as these parasites reside farther up the GI tract and do not always show up in routine fecal testing.

It is imperative to ensure you are giving the proper dosage to your horse, which is based on his/her body weight. Your horse’s body weight should be measured and recorded with a weight tape annually. The weight tape gives an estimation of your horse’s body weight by girth size.

Lastly, it is important to be sure that your horse gets and swallows all of the deworming medication. Ask for assistance if your horse resists oral administration.

Determining The Effectiveness Of Your Deworming Program

Previously we reviewed the importance of identifying horses within your barn with high intestinal parasite loads and how to effectively deworm these horses. The next step is ensuring that the dewormer you used is effective – that it will kill off any parasites that you horse may have by at least 90-100%. With the emergence of dewormer resistance, this is a crucial step in management of parasite loads on your farm and the overall wellness of your horse(s). Unfortunately, it is often overlooked by horse owners.

To determine the effectiveness of the dewormer you are using, as well as your overall deworming program, it is essential to perform serial fecal egg counts (FECs). FEC testing determines the concentration of parasite eggs in manure. Initially, a FEC should be done to determine the parasite load of your horse. If your horse is    negative, then your deworming program is probably ok; however, another FEC should be done at the egg recurrence period (ERP). If your horse is positive, a second FEC should be performed 10 to 14 days after deworming to establish the effectiveness of the product used (you should expect a FEC near zero). If the FEC is still high, then your horse has resistance to that product. A dewormer from a different drug class should then be used and the FEC repeated in 10-14 days to establish its effectiveness.

The final FEC should be done at the egg reappearance period (ERP). The ERP is a predictable interval where the FEC remains low after an effective deworming agent is administered and it differs slightly depending on the deworming product used. The normal ERP is 4-5 weeks for benzimidazole and pyrantel products, 6-8 weeks for ivermectin, and 12 weeks for moxidectin.  The second FEC helps to determine which horses have a high parasite load (encysted larvae) and/or if your farm or paddock has a parasite problem (re-infection). By identifying the “problem” you can provide targeted treatment of the individual horse and/or environment.

Cleaning manure out of stalls daily and paddocks 2-3 times weekly is essential to controlling   parasite contamination of your horse’s environment. Rotating paddocks periodically in the hot, dry months allows larval stages to emerge and die off without finding hosts. If you spread your manure over actively grazed areas, it is best to compost it prior to spreading it, as the heat generated during the process kills the parasite eggs.  Additionally, you always want to deworm new horses and check their FEC prior to turning them out with the herd to minimize contamination by an unknown host.

Research has found that once a farm and its horses have been cleared of parasites, many horses only need to be dewormed twice yearly with an Ivermectin-Praziquantel combination product to eliminate tapeworms and keep bots under control.  This approach to strategic deworming and parasite control will minimize the potential of developing resistance and is better for the environment. It also stops us from giving unnecessary medications to our equine friends and, long term, minimizes costs to you, the horse owner.

Dental Care

Proper dental care is a vital part of preventative healthcare of horses.  Filing of sharp edges, removing hooks, and aligning proper grinding of the teeth should be done at least annually.

As a patient ages, changes within the mouth occur.  Fractures of molars, missing teeth, diseased tooth roots, and “wavemouths” become commonplace.

The importance of equine dental care is becoming more and more apparent to horse owners.  In order to stay competitive, equestrians need to have their horse’s teeth in perfect order so their horses respond appropriately to the bit and subtle hand signals.

What was once a physically demanding and difficult task is now an accurate, easy and somewhat gentle procedure on horses.  The doctors at South Shore Equine Clinic & Diagnostic Center use a rotary mechanized float (POWERFLOAT) for most of the dental needs encountered with horses.  In an average of 6 to 10 minutes, all floating procedures including reduction of enamel points, hooks, ramps, wave mouth, bit seats, and incisor teeth are accomplished with minimal discomfort to the patient.  The small size of the abrasive surface and stationary guard permit easy access to all areas of the mouth on all breeds of horses.  The instrumentation allows us to complete tasks quickly and with minimal contact to the soft tissues of the mouth.  Trauma to the oral mucosa is virtually eliminated.

Digital radiographs of teeth, skull bones, and sinuses may also help to determine if more invasive or alternate treatments are necessary for your horse.  Consultations with dental specialists are available on an as needed basis.

Performance Dentistry

Superior Dentistry for Exceptional Horses

Performance dentistry is the label used to describe floating the mouth to maximize performance of that horse – both in mastication (chewing and breakdown of food) and when ridden.  The purpose of this term is to help differentiate from the practice of simple removal of sharp points as performed by many lay dentists.

Performance dentistry is the label used to describe floating the mouth to maximize performance of that horse – both in mastication (chewing and breakdown of food) and when ridden.  The purpose of this term is to help differentiate from the practice of simple removal of sharp points as performed by many lay dentists.

Performance dentistry is floating plus shaping of the cheek teeth to prevent pain to soft tissue and maximize your horse’s comfort.  It includes examination of the head and evaluation of incisor and molar occlusion. Teeth are examined for abnormal wear and chewing pattern.  The examination and corrections are done using a full mouth speculum. Full mouth speculums are essential for proper identification and treatment of dental problems.  Power tools are used for almost all dental procedures. Power tools enable work to be done quicker, easier and with fewer traumas to oral soft tissue. Also, patients spend less time with a speculum holding the mouth open. Almost all horses are sedated. Sedation relaxes mastication muscles and facilitates dental procedures especially when major corrections are required. Sedation can be easily reversed when requested.

The doctor’s of South Shore Equine Clinic practice performance dentistry with the utmost precision and attention to detail. We evaluate the function, symmetry, and balance of the molars and incisors, and treat as indicated.  Evaluation of the bit in the mouth is used to complete the assessment, if needed.

Twice annually we offer consultations on complicated cases with Dr. B.A. Rucker, an equine veterinarian and dental specialist. Dr. Rucker developed an interest in equine dentistry in the early 80’s and since then his US and international practice has been dedicated exclusively to equine dentistry.  Dr. Rucker holds wet labs and contributes extensively to training equine veterinarians in performance dentistry. The doctors at South Shore Equine Clinic have trained under Dr. Rucker in the field of performance dentistry.

If you are having problems with your horse’s mouth, with the bit or moving forward, think he or she may be having difficulty chewing, or just want an evaluation, schedule an appointment  today!!  We offer in clinic or on the farm evaluations.